Tesla’s Dynamic Theory of Gravity

When Tesla was 82, instead of speaking at a dinner party, he issued a written statement:

“I have worked out a dynamic theory of gravity in all details and hope to give this to the world very soon. It explains the causes of this force and the motions of heavenly bodies under its influence so satisfactorily that it will put an end to idle speculations and false conceptions, as that of curved space. According to the relativists, space has a tendency to curvature owing to an inherent property or presence of celestial bodies.

“Granting a semblance of reality to this fantastic idea, it is still very self-contradictory. Every action is accompanied by an equivalent reaction and the effects of the latter are directly opposite to those of the former. Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curvature of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies and, producing the opposite effects, straighten out the curves.

“Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible – However, even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for them and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion.”

vortex-aether-Tesla-transparentNikola Tesla’s life (1856 – 1943) spanned two scientific periods: that of the 19th century which saw the universe as filled with an invisible matter, “the aether”, and that of the 20th century which saw the universe as an empty vacuum with bits of matter in random motion. As an example of the difference between these two world views when the idea of the electron was proposed at the end of the 1800s it was then pictured as a spinning vortex of this aether that condensed into solid matter.

Man’s Greatest Achievement- by Nikola Tesla – New York American – July 6, 1930:

“The primary substance, thrown into infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance”.

Mr. Tesla’s vision: How the Electrician’s Lamp of Aladdin May Construct New Worlds- by Nikola Tesla – New York Times – April 21, 1908:

“According to an adopted theory, every ponderable atom is differentiated from a tenuous (fragile, vague) fluid, filling all space merely by spinning motion, as a whirl of water in a calm lake. By being set in movement this fluid, the ether, becomes gross matter. Its movement arrested (halted), the primary substance reverts to its normal state. It appears, then, possible for man through harnessed energy of the medium and suitable agencies for starting and stopping ether whirls to cause matter to form and disappear. At his command, almost without effort on his part, old worlds would vanish and new ones would spring into being. He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, adjust its distance from the sun, guide it on its eternal journey along any path he might choose, through the depths of the universe. He could make planets collide and produce his suns and stars, his heat and light; he could originate life in all its infinite forms. To cause at will the birth and death of matter would be man’s grandest deed, which would give him the mastery of physical creation, make him fulfill his ultimate destiny.”

The Transformation Of Matter – English Mechanic & World of Science – July 14, 1905

During the 19th Century, scientists Michael Faraday, James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz formulated a theory that described electromagnetic phenomena. This theory indicated that electric and magnetic forces resulted from the effect of electric and magnetic fields existing in space between electric charges. These electric charges were produced by the ether, which was thought to be able to exert electric forces on ordinary matter. Hertz showed that moving electromagnetic fields could break away from ordinary matter and propagate through the ether as independent electromagnetic waves carrying energy. These electromagnetic waves come in both visible and invisible forms. Hertz showed that visible light is one visible form of the electromagnetic wave. Invisible electromagnetic waves include radio waves, x-rays and microwaves. The concept of such waves moving through the ether can be likened to the waves that spread over a pond after a stone is thrown into the water. The ripples in the pond can be thought of as the equivalent of electromagnetic waves, and the still water as the equivalent of the ether. In a pond, the force of the stone hitting the water results in the ripples. One of the things puzzling the scientists of Einstein’s time was what exactly caused the formation of electromagnetic fields whose independent movement resulted in the electromagnetic waves which they conceived of as moving through space.

The ether was thought to be a backdrop at a state of absolute rest against which the movement of elements of the cosmos occurred. In his articles in 1905 Einstein did not fully rejected the existence of Ether. He only suggested a mathematical treatment of some relativistic problems. In 1920, after he developed the General relativity, he arrived to the conclusion that the ether should exist. This fact is of enormous importance, when citing the contributions of Albert Einstein. The Einstein statement from 1920 is missing in the scholar physics textbooks, where only his articles from 1905 are mentioned.

Ether & Relativity – by Albert Einstein – University of Leiden – 5 May 1920:

“The ether of the general theory of relativity is a medium which is itself devoid of all mechanical and kinematical qualities, but helps to determine mechanical (and electromagnetic) events.”

Albert Einstein in 1920:

“To deny ether is ultimately to assume that empty space has no physical quality whatever. The fundamental facts of quantum mechanics do not harmonize with this view.”

Ether and the Theory of Relativity –  by Albert Einstein – Methuen & Co. Ltd, London, in 1922:

“How does it come about that alongside of the idea of ponderable matter, which is derived by abstraction from everyday life, the physicists set the idea of the existence of another kind of matter, the ether? The explanation is probably to be sought in those phenomena which have given rise to the theory of action at a distance, and in the properties of light which have led to the undulatory theory.

“Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it.”

An understanding of the ether is also important for understanding the theory of electromagnetic phenomena which preceded Einstein’s theory of relativity.

The Michelson–Morley experiment was published in 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley and performed at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. It compared the speed of light in perpendicular directions, in an attempt to detect the relative motion of matter through the stationary luminiferous aether (“aether wind”). The negative results are generally considered to be the first strong evidence against the then-prevalent aether theory, and initiated a line of research that eventually led to special relativity, in which the stationary aether concept has no role. The experiment has been referred to as “the moving-off point for the theoretical aspects of the Second Scientific Revolution”.

Gravitational Waves

In modern physics, gravitational waves are supposed to be ripples in the curvature of space-time from a heavy moving object which propagate as waves, travelling outward from the source that radiate at the speed of light. Predicted in 1916 by Albert Einstein to exist on the basis of his theory of general relativity, gravitational waves theoretically transport energy as gravitational radiation. Sources of detectable gravitational waves could possibly include binary star systems composed of white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes.

These gravity waves behave in similar ways to many other types of waves. Tesla’s greatest inventions were all based on the study of waves. He always considered sound, light, heat, X-rays and radio waves to be related phenomena that could be studied using the same sort of maths. For this reason there exist the possibility that Tesla had extended this thinking to gravity.

Thermodynamics

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather, it transforms from one form to another. For instance, chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy in the explosion of a stick of dynamite. A consequence of the law of conservation of energy is that a perpetual motion machine of the first kind cannot exist. That is to say, no system without an external energy supply can deliver an unlimited amount of energy to its surroundings

The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe , Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays – New York – October 13, 1932 and Prepared Statement of Tesla (For interview with press on 81st birthday observance):

“There is no more energy in matter than that received from the environment.”

The following list is a selection of quotes which could be related with Tesla’s Dynamic Theory of Gravity:

Experiments with Alternate Currents of Very High Frequency and Their Application to Methods of Artificial Illumination – A lecture delivered before the AIEE (Columbia College) – May 20, 1891 and Presentation of the Edison Medal to Nikola Tesla: Minutes of the annual meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, held at the Engineering Societies building – New York City – May 18, 1917:

“In how far we can understand the world around us is the ultimate thought of every student of nature.  The coarseness of our senses prevents us from recognizing the ulterior construction of matter, and astronomy, this grandest and most positive of natural sciences, can only teach us something that happens, as it were, in our immediate neighborhood; of the remoter portions of the boundless universe, with its numberless stars and suns, we know nothing. But far beyond the limit of perception of our senses the spirit still can guide us, and so we may hope that even these unknown worlds—infinitely small and great—may in a measure become known to us. Still, even if this knowledge should reach us, the searching mind will find a barrier, perhaps forever unsurpassable, to the true recognition of that which seems to be, the mere appearance of which is the only and slender basis of all our philosophy.”

Mr. Tesla’s vision: How the Electrician’s Lamp of Aladdin May Construct New Worlds – by Nikola Tesla – New York Times – April 21, 1908:

“According to an adopted theory, every ponderable atom is differentiated from a tenuous (fragile, vague) fluid, filling all space merely by spinning motion, as a whirl of water in a calm lake. By being set in movement this fluid, the ether, becomes gross matter. Its movement arrested (halted), the primary substance reverts to its normal state. It appears, then, possible for man through harnessed energy of the medium and suitable agencies for starting and stopping ether whirls to cause matter to form and disappear. At his command, almost without effort on his part, old worlds would vanish and new ones would spring into being. He could alter the size of this planet, control its seasons, adjust its distance from the sun, guide it on its eternal journey along any path he might choose, through the depths of the universe. He could make planets collide and produce his suns and stars, his heat and light; he could originate life in all its infinite forms. To cause at will the birth and death of matter would be man’s grandest deed, which would give him the mastery of physical creation, make him fulfill his ultimate destiny.”

Nikola Tesla Talks Of The Future Of The Greatest Problems Now Confronting The Scientific World – New York Press – March 2, 1913:

Q. What do you think of radium and the prospect it opens for the future?

“My views on the subject are probably not in the agreement of those of many men of science who have devoted themselves to this branch of investigation. It may not be generally known that in my papers published in the electrical Review in New York from 1896 to 1897, long before the discovery of Mm. Curie I demonstrated the existence and described the salient properties of emanations of the same nature. My views were received with skepticism at that time, but I’m glad to say that now they are adopted in their entirety. I see no reason for changing the opinions I then expressed. The so-called radium emanations are not an insulated phenomenon, but are universal. There is, according to my ideas, no such element as radium or polonium, although spectral analysis, the theory of Mendeleff, and various experimental observations, support this modern view. I believe that as to this, scientific opinion is in error, as it was a century ago in assuming that there was such a substance as phlogiston concerned in combustion until Lavoisiere discovered oxygen. Similarly the radium manifestations are, in all probability, due to the action of a universal medium on certain volatile substance. Much of the speculation based on Mm. Curie’s is necessarily erroneous, being in direct contradiction to well established principles. The claims of some enthusiasts that in radium lies the possibility of future power development are nothing but a dream. But some fact is that we are in presence of new and wonderful effects the study of which is leading us gradually to a better and deeper understanding of the mechanism of the universe.”

Harnessing Nature – Can The Free Energy Of Space Be Utilized? – Scientific American – April 5, 1913:

“Experiments conducted by Mr. Nikola Tesla with electromotive forces of 2,000,000 volts have convinced him that if 100,000,000 volts could be produced it might be possible to break down the atomic structure of any element and thus liberate a certain amount of energy. “But,” he told the writer of this article, “even if the feat could be accomplished and sufficient energy set free, there still remains the enormously difficult problem of devising a means of utilising the energy in a practical way.”

Tesla, 75, Predicts New Power Source – New York Times – July 5th, 1931:

“When and where do you expect to make the official announcement of your new discoveries?” the inventor was asked.

“These discoveries,” he replied, “did not come to me over night, but as the result of intense study and experimentation for nearly thirty-six years. I am naturally anxious to give the facts to the world as soon as possible, but I also wish to present them in a finished form. That may take a few months or a few years.

“The idea of atomic energy is illusionary but it has taken so powerful a hold on the minds, that although I have preached against it for twenty-five years, there are still some who believe it to be realizable.

“I have disintegrated atoms in my experiments with a high potential vacuum tube I brought out in 1896, which I consider one of my best inventions. I have operated it with pressures ranging from 4,000,000 to 18,000,000 volts. More recently I have designed an apparatus for 50,000,000 volts which should produce many results of great scientific importance.

“But as to atomic energy, my experimental observations have shown that the process of disintegration is not accompanied by a liberation of such energy as might be expected from the present theories.”

Statement of Tesla Relating to Force and Matter – Unknown – April 15, 1932:

The following is Tesla’s statement relating to force and matter, to Einstein’s theories, and Tesla’s own theory of gravitation. Courtesy of Nikola Tesla Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University.

“We read a great deal about matter being changed into force and force being changed into matter by the cosmic rays. This is absurd. It is the same as saying that the body can be changed into the mind, and the mind into the body. We know that the mind is a functioning of the body, and in the same manner force is a function of matter. Without the body there can be no mind, without matter there can be no force.

“Einstein has for years developed formulas explaining the mechanism of the cosmos. In doing this he overlooked an important factor, namely the fact that some of the heavenly bodies are increasing in distance from the sun. This is the same as writing a business letter and forgetting the subject you wish to write about. In order to explain this phenomenon Einstein has invented the quantity “lambda”.

“My theory of gravitation explains this phenomenon perfectly.”

Tesla Cosmic Ray Motor May Transmit Power ‘Round Earth – Brooklyn Eagle – July 10, 1932, John J. A. O’Neill:

“The attractive features of the Cosmic rays is their constancy. They shower down on us throughout the whole 24 hours, and if a plant is developed to use their power it will not require devices for storing energy as would be necessary with devices using wind, tide or sunlight.

“All of my investigations seem to point to the conclusion that they are small particles, each carrying so small a charge that we are justified in calling them neutrons. They move with great velocity, exceeding that of light.

“More than 25 years ago I began my efforts to harness the cosmic rays and I can now state that I have succeeded in operating a motive device by means of them.”

Pioneer Radio Engineer Gives Views On Power – New York Herald Tribune – September 11, 1932:

“As the general knowledge of this subject seems very limited, I may state, that even waves only one or two millimeters long, which I produced thirty-three years ago, provided that they carry sufficient energy, can be transmitted around the globe. This is not so much due to refraction and reflection as to the properties of a gaseous medium and certain peculiar action, which I shall explain some time in the future. At present it may be sufficient to call attention to an important fact in this connection, namely, that this bending of the beam projected from reflector does not affect in the least its behavior in other respects. As regards deflection in a horizontal plane, it acts just as though it were straight. To be explicit the horizontal deviations are comparatively slight. In a proposed ultra short wave transmission, the vertical bending, far from being an advantage, is a serious drawback, as it increased greatly the liability of disturbances by obstacles at the earth’s surface. The downward deflection always occurs, irrespective of wavelength, and also if the beam is thrown upward at an angle to the horizontal, and this tendency is, according to my finding, all the more pronounced the bigger the planet. On a body as large as the sun, it would be impossible to project a disturbance of this kind to any considerable distance except along the surface.

“It might be inferred that I am alluding to the curvature of space supposed to exist according to the teachings of relativity, but nothing could be further from my mind. I hold that space cannot be curved, for the simple reason that it can have no properties. It might as well be said that God has properties. He has not, but only attributes and these are of our own making. Of properties we can only speak when dealing with matter filling the space. To say that in the presence of large bodies space becomes curved, is equivalent to stating that something can act upon nothing. I, for one, refuse to subscribe to such a view.”

German Cosmic Ray Theory Questioned – New York Herald Tribune – March 3, 1935:

“Light is a wave motion of definite velocity, determined by the elastic force and density of the medium. Cosmic rays are particles of matter, the speed of which depends on the propelling force and mass, and may be much smaller or greater than that of light.

“The cosmic rays, generated during the maximum brightness of the star, may reach the place many centuries sooner or later than the light, according to their speed.”

New York Sun, 12 July 1937, p. 6:

“The kinetic and potential energy of a body is the result of motion and determined by the product of its mass and the square of its velocity. Let the mass be reduced, the energy is reduced by the same proportion. If it be reduced to zero, the energy is likewise zero for any finite velocity.”

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